a. Faulty generalizations
i. Fallacy by accident
Occurs when someone generalizes a concept while ignoring possible exemptions.
Example: “All redheads are Uzumaki”
ii. No true Scotsman Fallacy
Occurs when someone generalizes a concept and rules out possible exemptions has not being “true to the concept”
Example: “No true Uchiha would befriend an Uzumaki.”
iii. Cherry picking
Occurs when someone chooses information that corroborates his/her argument while ignoring any information that contradicts it.
Example: “Tobi is Tobirama because the knowledge of both would match [ignoring that Tobirama’s soul has been sealed away]”
iv. False analogy
Occurs when someone does an analogy that is poorly executed.
Example: Making an analogy between Peter Pan being able to fly and breaks in the Suspension of Disbelief
v. Hasty generalization
Occurs when someone makes a hasty conclusion on a small sample or on a particular statement that was mistaken as universal.
Example: “All Uzumaki are redheads”
vi. Overwhelming exception
Occurs when someone describes makes a generalization that, even if it’s accurate, has eliminated so many variables that it becomes much less impressive than the starting premise.
Example: Starting with the premise that all Uzumaki are redheads when the generalization only affects Nagato and Kushina.
vii. Thought-terminating cliché
Occurs when someone ends (or tries to end) an argument with a cliché, not a proposition that actually wraps up the argument.
Example: “Well, Tobi can be Obito because of the hair and the Sharingan, or it could be Madara’s clone because of mannerisms and knowledge, but let’s wait and see.”
b. Red Herrings
They are all irrelevant conclusions, but with special designations depending on the nature.
i. Ad hominem
In other words, “argument against the person”. We all know this is the bread and butter of the whole Internet (along with porn, since the Internet was made for it), so don’t act surprised if you see it fly everywhere. It occurs when the arguer is attacked instead of the argument.
Example: “You’re all a bunch of haters.”
ii. Well poisoning
It’s a special case of Ad hominem where adverse information (be it true or fabricated) is used to discredit the opponent.
Example: “You obviously have no life if you bother to refute everything I say”.
iii. Ad baculum
In other words, “appeal to threat”. It occurs when someone stops an argument to make a threat to the well being of the opponent.
Example: “If I’m right you can all eat a dick.”
iv. Ad populum
In other words, “appeal to the people”. It occurs when someone resorts to the sentiment of (some of) the audience/population.
Example: “I think Tobi is Obito because many other people think so too.”
v. Fallacy by association
Occurs when someone argues that two things that have a certain property are the same.
Example: “Yagura’s flower looks like the same Gedou Mazou was sat on.”
vi. Appeal to authority.
Occurs when someone says that a proposition is true because a person with much higher authority said so or said person has a direct control on the veracity of the proposition
Example: “Tobi is Obito because this is Kishimoto’s story after all and he can do whatever he pleases”
vii. Appeal to accomplishment
Occurs when someone says that a proposition is true or false based on the accomplishments of the arguer or the target of the proposition.
Example: “Naruto is a great manga because people are still reading it every week.”
viii. Appeal to consequences
Occurs when someone appeals to the consequences of a certain action in an attempt to derail the argument.
Example: “Naruto is a Senju, because if he isn’t then any upcoming fight between Sasuke and Naruto won’t be as symbolic.”
ix. Appeal to emotion
Occurs when the argument is used to manipulate an emotion (be it fear, flattery, pity, ridicule, spite, wishful thinking, etc.) rather than to make a valid point.
x. Appeal to motive
Occurs when the argument is refuted by questioning the motives of the arguer.
Example: “You’re just refuting my theories because you don’t like me.”
xi. Appeal to novelty
Occurs when someone claims his/her theory is valid just because it’s new.
Example: “These are my new theories, so don’t bitch about them!”
xii. Appeal to tradition
Occurs when someone supports his/her argument with something that was held to be true for a long time, but might not be true anymore.
Example: Saying that gravity only pulls (Newtonian physics, valid from 1687 to 1916) when research has shown that in can push with enough bending of the time/space continuum (Einsteinian Physics, valid since 1916, although modified in some clauses).
xiii. Genetic fallacy
Occurs when someone produces a conclusion based on the origin of the subject rather than its current state.
Example: “Naruto is Senju because he descends from the Second Son.”
xiv. Naturalistic fallacy
Occurs when someone makes a proposition about what things should be rather than what they are/will be.
Example: Arguing for the continuous symbolism of Senju vs Uchiha and Naruto vs Sasuke to prove Naruto is Senu when it pretty much flew out of the window the moment Naruto became an Uzumaki.
xv. Ad Hitler/Godwin’s Law
In other words, “the longer an argument is held, the chances of Hitler and/or the Nazi being mentioned is higher”. Be it an ad hominem, an appeal to emotion, an appeal to motives or anything else, leave poor Hitler alone, he already suffered enough after his death.
xvi. Texas sharpshooter fallacy
A form of KY- err… Kettle Logic, where inconsistent arguments are made to justify a cause to a cluster of information/propositions.
xvii. Appeal to Hypocrisy
Occurs when someone refutes an argument because the arguer didn’t act consistently throughout the discussion. Not to be confused with pointing out the hypocrisy of the arguer when it comes to the argument itself, because the first assumes that the refuter does not care for the argument because the arguer is a hypocrite, while the latter assumes the refuter noticed a contradiction between premises of the argument and deems the arguer an hypocrite.
xviii. Two wrongs make a right.
Occurs when someone thinks that a second wrong variable will fix the first wrong variable.
And… I think that’s it. There are many more fallacies and logic exercises, so if you have any question, just reply.
PS: The constant repetition of Tobi=Obito and Naruto=Senju is not a mere coincidence.