Gender notwithstanding, Japanese suffixes show various levels of respect, which we could compare to English as follow :
# san, sama 様 => Mr, Mrs, Miss
# dono 殿 > Sir, Madam
# kyou 卿 => Lord, Lady, Dame
Nevertheless, "sama" is used for Shinto gods ("kami-sama"). But as there are millions of them, they do not necessarily deserve the same respect or fear as the single and omnipotent Judeo-Christo-Islamic god.
The most referential titles are "denka" 殿下 and "heika" 陛下. The first one means "His/Her/Your Highness" and is used for royal/imperial family members. The second means "His/Her/Your Majesty" and is used for the Emperor or Empress - or King and Queen, in other monarchies around the world.
In everyday life, "san" is the most common suffix. "-chan" is a more affectionate term, used mainly with friends, family members and children. "-tan" is a kind of slang version. "-kun" is usually reserved for boys or young men, but can sometimes be used for girls or young women too. There is also "-shi" 氏, which is an intermediary form between "san" and "sama" in terms of politeness, and is mostly used for professionals like engineers or lawyers.
Then comes "sensei" 先生, which is used for anybody with a knowledge superior to ours. It is most common for doctors, teachers and professors, but can also be used for politicians, martial arts masters, etc. Contrarily to other suffixes so far, "sensei" can be used alone, without a name before it, just like "doctor" or "professor" in English. So, one can say "Nomura-sensei" or just "Sensei", like one could say in English "Professor Nomura" or "Professor".
"Sempai" 先輩 is another very common way of addressing someone with more experience or a hierarchical superior. It can be used alone or after a name, like "sensei".
Name short-forms and noun combinations
It is very common for Japanese to use the first syllable of someone's name and combine it with a suffix. For example, "Mi-chan" could be the short-form of Miki, Michiko, Miko, Misa, Minato, Mickey, Minnie, etc.
Suffixes can also be used with some common nouns referring to a person. E.g. "kyaku-san" or "kyaku-sama" (customer, client, guest), "okaa-san" (mother) or, more informally, "okaa-chan" (mum, mom).
Suffixes can also be combined in a more or less humoristical manner, like "-chama" (chan + sama), as in "obaa-chama" for "grand-mother", which is both affectionate and respectful. There is a lot of freedom in the possible combinations, which is the absolute opposite of "Mr, Mrs, Miss" in English, which are fixed and non interchangeable.
Other less polite suffixes also exist. Their intensity depend a lot on the intonation and context, like "-baka" 馬鹿, or the ever ruder "-yarou" 野郎 (and combination "bakayarou", which is however normally used alone as an insult). So, "kyaku-yarou" would be a very impolite way of talking about a customer someone strongly dislikes. These can also be used individually, like in "ano yarou !" ("this a*shole !") or "baka !" ("mor@n" !)