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Old 10-27-2011, 05:23 AM   #1
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Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Since it seems we’re on theory season in the Naruto Manga section and seeing that some theories are… less than stellar, to put it nicely, I thought that this section needs a thread that can serve as reference for both those who create theories and those who refute them.



1) Deductive thinking
a. Proposition
When we state something, be it affirmative or negative, we’re making a proposition that is composed by subject and predicate. The subject is the target of the statement and predicate is the attribute given/denied to the subject.

For example, in the proposition “This manga’s name is Naruto”, the manga is the subject and Naruto is the predicate. But why am I talking about this?

b. Syllogism

Because of that big word. Syllogism is the form of deductive thinking with 3 propositions where 2 of them become premises and the other becomes the conclusion. The conclusion is a proposition with new information that is based on the premises.

For example:
  • Naruto is a Genin
  • All Genins graduated from Academy
  • Therefore, Naruto graduated from Academy
You may noticed there are 3 terms that are shared among the propositions. They are the major term (T), the minor term (t) and the medium term (M). The minor term serves as subject of the conclusion, the major term is its predicate and the medium term is the link between the premises that doesn’t appear in the conclusion. Also, the premise with the minor term is the minor premise, while the premise with the major term is the major premise. Taking the previous example:

  • Naruto (t) is a Genin (M) (minor premise)
  • All Genin (M) didn’t graduate in the Chuunin Exams (T) (major premise)
  • Therefore, Naruto (t) didn’t graduate in the Chuunin Exams (T) (conclusion)
Simple, right? But notice the wording, I wrote “all Genin” instead of just Genin. That’s because the wording has a role to play in the validity of the conclusion. There are four kinds of propositions (each with its symbolic vowel):


  • Universal and affirmative (A)
  • Universal and negative (E)
  • Particular and affirmative (I)
  • Particular and negative (O)
Keep in mind that the predicate in affirmative propositions is non-distributed (that is, either some or all of the subject is some of the predicate) while the predicate in negative propositions is distributed (that is, either some or all of the subject is none of the predicate).

Also, how the terms display themselves in the premises alter the nature of the conclusion. There are four figures, going from more spontaneous to more technical:

  • First Figure: Middle term is subject of the major premise and predicate of the minor
  • Second Figure: Middle term is predicate of both premises
  • Third Figure: Middle term is subject of both premises
  • Fourth Figure: Middle term is predicate of the major premise and subject of the minor

Taking again the example, the syllogism belongs to the First Figure. Now these are the principles behind those figures

  • First Figure: the major premise is always universal (A/E), while the minor is always affirmative (A/I); the conclusion is universal (A/E) if the minor premise is also universal (A) and it’s negative (E/O) if the major premise is negative (E). These are the aspects of this figure (major-minor-conclusion): AAA, EAE, AII (the aspect of the example given) and EIO.
  • Second Figure: the major premise is always universal (A/E), while one of the premises must be negative (E/O), the conclusion is always negative (E/O); the conclusion is universal (E) if the minor premise is also universal (A/E). The aspects are EAE, AEE, EIO and AOO.
  • Third Figure: the minor premise is always affirmative (A/I) and the conclusion is always particular (I/O). The aspects are AAI, EAI, IAI, AII, OAO and EIO
  • Fourth Figure: When the major premise is affirmative (A/I), the minor is universal (A/E); if the conclusion is negative (E/O), the major premise is universal (E) and when the minor is affirmative (A/I), the conclusion is particular (I/O). The aspects are AAI, AEE, IAI, EAO and EIO.

Now, if you’re not bored out of your skulls like when I first learned this, you’ll notice that are some aspects that never appear, like two negative premises or two particular premises. That’s because there are rules when forming a syllogism.

  • There are 3 terms and ONLY 3 terms
  • The medium term cannot exist in the conclusion
  • The medium term must be distributed equally between premises
  • No term can be more meaningful in the conclusion than in the premises
  • We can’t conclude anything from 2 negative premises
  • We can’t conclude negatively if both premises are affirmative
  • If one of the premises is negative and/or particular, the conclusion must be negative and/or particular
  • We can’t conclude anything from 2 particular premises.
c. Formal fallacies of syllogisms
Yes, all this blabber was only to reach to these pearls of (lack of) logic that people in this forum seem to love. Since we made a list of rules, let’s see what fallacies are connected to them by order.
i. Fallacy of Four Terms
One would think people would be wiser to avoid such a silly fallacy, but some just seem to love it. Here’s an example:

  • A Rinnegan user was dubbed the 7th Path
  • The 7th Realm is a step to reach Buddhahood
  • Therefore, Rinnegan users can reach Buddhahood

This is fallacious because there are clearly four terms: the 7th Path is not the 7th Realm in Buddhism, therefore this syllogism lacks a middle term, making the conclusion invalid.
ii. Fallacy of Intrusive Middle Term
Again, another fallacy that should be easy to avoid but somehow it isn’t.

  • All Senju descend from the Second Son.
  • The Uzumaki are related to the Senju
  • Therefore, all Uzumaki are Senju because they descend from the Second Son.

This is fallacious because the middle term (Senju) is present in the conclusion, giving the proposition 2 predicates when it can only have one (in this case, being descendant of the Second Son). The correct conclusion is “All Uzumaki descend from the Second Son”.
iii. Fallacy of Undistributed Middle Term
Seemingly similar to the previous fallacy, but there’s a significant difference.

  • All Senju are descended from the Second Son
  • All Uzumaki are descended from the Second Son
  • Therefore, all Uzumaki are Senju.

This is fallacious because, even though the middle term is not in the conclusion, it still makes the conclusion invalid. Why? Think of it for a bit: the middle term is being the predicate for both affirmative premises, so it’s never distributed in any of them. That’s why the Second Figure has a negative premise and a negative conclusion, to give distribution to the middle term.
iv. Illicit minor/major

Another fallacy that’s connected to the distribution of terms

  • All Edo Tensei summons are undead
  • Some Uchiha can’t be Edo Tensei summons
  • Therefore, some Uchiha can’t be undead

This is fallacious because the major term (being undead) is augmented in the conclusion. It was non-distributed in the premise but somehow distributed in the conclusion.
v. Fallacy of Exclusive Terms
And this is why you don’t have two negative premises.

  • Tobi isn’t Tobirama
  • Tobi isn’t Naruto
  • Therefore, Tobirama isn’t Naruto

This is a blatant fallacy, since the conclusion is useless (we didn’t need the syllogism to know that Tobirama isn’t Naruto) and the middle term is irrelevant (who says Tobi can say any character in the context of the syllogism)
vi. Illicit affirmative/negative
More nonsense!

  • Tobi uses Sharingan
  • The Uchiha use Sharingan
  • Therefore, Tobi isn’t an Uchiha.

Another blatant fallacy, because, like in math, when you add two affirmatives you can’t have a negative as result.

vii. Universal/Affirmative conclusion when one of the premises is Particular/Negative

One more silly fallacy:

  • Some redheads aren’t Uzumaki
  • Karin is a redhead
  • Therefore, Karin is an Uzumaki

This is fallacious, because the major term is negative and it’s the predicate of the conclusion, therefore its negative property also has to be present in the conclusion.
viii. Fallacy of Particular Terms
And taking the above example, it is also fallacious because Karin is a particular term that also happens to be the minor, but since we’re taking two particular terms, the link between premises is too weak to validate the conclusion.
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:24 AM   #2
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

a. Proportional Logic

This one is more dazing because it is a lot similar to math and everybody hates math, amirite?

First, the most basic form o Proportional Logic is when you break up a proposition in variables that are given the symbols of p, q, r, etc. and execute a logic operation (that is, the connection between variables/propositions).

There are 6 basic logic operations:
  • Negation, symbolized by ~ (e.g Naruto is not a Senju)
  • Conjunction, symbolized by ^ (e.g Naruto knows Rasengan and Kage Bunshin no Jutsu)
  • Inclusive disjunction, symbolized by V (e.g Some nins are male and/or black)
  • Exclusive disjunction, symbolized by W (e.g Or a nin is from Kumo or is from Konoha)
  • Conditional, symbolized by => (e.g If one knows Sage Mode, then he can learn Frog Katas)
  • Biconditional, symbolized by <=> (e.g One can be a Chuunin if and only if s/he passes the Chuunin exams)

Now there are some rules concerning the veracity of the proposition considering the logic operations:

  • If p is true, than ~p is false and vice-versa
  • A proposition that comes from a conjunction is only true if its variables (p^q or p^~q) are both true. It is false in any other way.
  • A proposition that comes from an inclusive disjunction is only false if its variables (pVq or pV~q) are both false. It is true in any other way.
  • A proposition that comes from an exclusive disjunction is false if its variables (pWq or pW~q) are both true or both false. It is true in any other way.
  • A proposition that comes from a conditional is only false if antecedent (p) is true and the consequence (q or ~q) is false. It is true in any other way.
  • Finally, a proposition that comes from a biconditional is true if its variables (p<=>q or p<=>~q) are both true or both false. It is false in any other way.

b. Tautology

What’s a tautology? It’s a composed proposition that, no matter how many variables are false, is always true.

For example, the tautology [(p=>q)^~q]=>~p (e.g, If Tobi is Obito, then he survived the falling rocks and if he didn’t survive the rocks, then Tobi can’t be Obito) is always true. Why? We know that for a conditional to be false, the consequence (q in the first conditional, ~p in the second) must be false but the antecedent must be true (p in the first, (p=>q)^~q in the second). We also know that a conjunction is only true if both variables are true and that if p and/or q are true, then ~p and/or ~q are false.

Let’s solve this damn equation:
  • If p and q are both true, ~p and ~q are false and p=>q is true. If that’s so, the conjunction (p=>q)^~q is false because ~q is false. But since both variables of the second conditional are false, than the conditional must be true, therefore the proposition is true.
  • If p is true and q is false, ~p is false and ~q is true and p=>q is false. If that’s so, the the conjunction (p=>q)^~q is false because the conditional is false. But since both variables of the second conditional are false, than the conditional must be true, therefore the proposition is true.
  • If p is false and q is true, ~p is true and ~q is false and p=>q is true. If that’s so, the conjunction (p=>q)^~q is false because ~q is false. But since the consequence of the second conditional is true, than the conditional must be true, therefore the proposition is true.
  • If p and q are both false, ~p and ~q are true and p=>q is true. If that’s so, the conjunction (p=>q)^~q is true because both variables are true. But since both variables of the second conditional are true, than the conditional must be true, therefore the proposition is true.

See? Needs a little bit of work to understand, but it pays off.

c. Contradiction

Contradictions are simply the opposite of tautologies, so their false no matter how many true variables it has. The simplest form of contradiction is the negation of a tautology.

d. Formal fallacies of the Proportional Logic

There are two forms of fallacies in Proportional Logic: affirming the consequence and denying the antecedent.
i. Affirming the consequence
Here’s an example of this.

“If Tobi=Obito, then Tobi can’t be Madara and if Tobi isn’t Madara, then Tobi=Obito”

Equating this, this is [(p=>~q)^~q]=>p. Pretty similar to the tautology above, right? WRONG!!! If p (Tobi=Obito) is false and ~q is true (Tobi isn’t Madara), then the second conditional is false since the consequence is false and the antecedent true, therefore the proposition can be proven wrong, so it becomes fallacious.
ii. Denying the antecedent
Another example:

“If Tobi=Madara, then Tobi can’t be Obito and if Tobi isn’t Madara, then Tobi=Obito”

The equation for this, [(p=>~q)^~p]=>q, is also very similar to the tautology shown, but yet again it is not what it looks. If p (Tobi=Madara) is false and ~q (Tobi can’t be Obito) is true, then the second conditional is false since the consequence is false and the antecedent true, therefore the proposition can be proven wrong, so it becomes fallacious.

2) Argumentation

Like in everything, some of it is good, some of it is bad, so what makes a good argument?

a. Acceptability

The premises the conclusion is made of must be acceptable to whom the argument is made for. It doesn’t matter how true the conclusion is if the line of thought is heavily invalid.

b. Relevance

All premises must be relevant to the conclusion. Showing how you know how to use Wikipedia doesn’t have anything to do with how Buddhist concepts fit in the manga.

c. Support

The conclusion must be strongly supported by its premises, therefore the premises must be enough and strong to hold the theory. If this doesn’t happen, it all falls down like a house of cards.

d. Resilience against Refutability

The more complicated it is to refute your theory while the refuter remains valid, the best. That means everything above was applied correctly and the conclusion is very valid. Now if something as shallow as point out that the flowers you thought were the same aren’t the same, that means you’re doing a crappy job at it.
3) Informal Fallacies
It’s the Fallacy Flying Circusssssssssssssssssss!!! (I’ll only refer to fallacies relevant to literature and the discussion of it)
a. General Informal Fallacies
i. Argument from ignorance
Occurs when someone appeals to the unknown nature of the matter being argued instead of providing propositions about it.

Example: “Naruto can still be Senju because we don’t who were Minato’s and Kushina’s parents”
ii. Argument from repetition / ad nauseam
Occurs when someone doesn’t seem to give up on a flawed argument and keeps repeating it.

Example: Making dozens of posts about your Yin/Yang theory when it’s been already refuted again and again
iii. Argument from silence
Occurs when someone assumes the silence of others means the argument s/he made is irrefutable. Most of times, the other person just doesn’t know how to overcome the sheer stupidity of the argument being made.
iv. Proof by Verbosity
Occurs when someone uses verbose arguments that have little to no relevance to the argument or are even wrongly applied/spelled, just to make the author of the argument look smart and overwhelm others with information

Example: “Shinbuitsu shugo [it’s spelled Shinbutsu Shuugou] is based on the theory of the merger between Buddhism and Shinto practices [that is never witnessed in the manga].
And shibutsu Bunri [it’s spelled Shinbutsu Bunri] is based on the separation of those practices passed latter on [never realizing that the Shinbutsu Bunri wasn’t successful in its purpose, putting Shintoism above Buddhism]
v. Shifting the burden of proof
Occurs when someone, instead of making a proposition that defends the argument, asks others to make a proposition that refutes the argument. The burden of proof should always be on the defending side.

Example: If Tobi isn’t Obito, then who do you think he is?
vi. Circular reasoning

Occurs when someone uses or assumes the conclusion in the premises.

Example: Naruto is Senju because Minato’s mother is Tsunade or else Naruto wouldn’t be Senju.

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Old 10-27-2011, 05:25 AM   #3
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

vii. Cum hoc, ergo propter hoc
In other words, “there’s a correlation, therefore one causes the other”. It happens when a correlation exists between two variables that isn’t causation but it’s treated like such. For example, one variable happening after the other can lead to this fallacy.

Example: “Madara created Zetsu after starting to mind-control Yagura, therefore Yagure is the origin of Zetsu”
viii. Suppressed correlative

Occurs when someone distorts a correlative (two or more exclusive options) in a way that an alternative is deemed impossible.

Example: “Everything in the manga points out that Tobi=Obito”
ix. Equivocation
Is pretty much the same as the Fallacy of the Four Terms, but is more incident in the conclusion rather than in the middle term.

Example: “Naruto was Sanji’s original name, so he was who kissed Sasuke”
x. Fallacy of composition
Occurs when someone assumes the properties of the particular as true for the universal.

Example: “The trademark hair color of the Uzumaki is red, therefore all redheads are Uzumaki”
xi. Fallacy of division
Occurs when someone assumes the properties of the universal as true for the particular. It happens a lot when someone takes a statistic and wrongly attributes values to the parts that constitute that statistic.

Example: “The Shinobi Alliance had 80 000 nins, therefore each village has 16 000 nins”
xii. False Dilemma
Occurs when someone says there’s only one alternative to a variable when there are more.

Example: “Tobi is either Madara or Obito”
xiii. If-by-whiskey fallacy
Occurs when someone uses doublespeak to appeal to both sides of the debate but doesn’t side with any of them.

Example: “Well, Tobi can be Obito because of the hair and the Sharingan, or it could be Madara’s clone because of mannerisms and knowledge, but let’s wait and see.”
xiv. Fallacy of the single cause
Occurs when someone assumes there’s a single causation to the events when there are many.

Example: Saying that everything breaks down to the Yin/Yang when there are many more causes in play.
xv. False attribution
Occurs when one fabricates or uses an irrelevant/invalid premise to support the conclusion.

Example: “Minato gave the second half othe Kyuubi to Sasuke because Itachi radiated good nature.”
xvi. Contextomy
Occurs when someone quotes things out of context, distorting the original meaning of said quote.

Example: Quoting Karin comparing the Kyuubi’s and Sasuke’s chakra to say Sasuke is a Jinchuuriki, although the comparison was only made about the evil of both chakras.
xvii. Argument to moderation
Occurs when someone says that a compromise between both sides of the argument is the best, even if they’re strikingly different in terms of validity.

Example: White Knights defending crappy theories

xviii. Historian’s fallacy
Occurs when someone has a hindsight bias, assuming that the information known at the present was known at a certain point in the past. This happens both in a storytelling point of view and the character’s point of view.

Example: Assuming the knowledge that Minato was (one of the) greatest shinobi of Konoha comes from Part I, when in reality Minato only was astronomically hyped in Part II.
xix. Incomplete/inconsistent comparison
Occurs when someone makes a comparison but it’s incomplete to be valid, either by lack of information or when the method of comparison is inconsistent.

Example: “Tobi and Obito are both Uchiha and have spiky hair, so they’re one and the same”
xx. Irrelevant conclusion
Occurs when someone reaches to a conclusion that does not address the argument being made at all.

Example: “Tobi is Obito because the author likes to lead the readers to wrong conclusions”
xxi. Kettle logic
It should be renamed KYF’s logic, really. Occurs when someone uses several inconsistent arguments to defend an argument.
xxii. Mind Projection Fallacy
Occurs when someone considers his/her perception of reality as reality itself.

Example: Actually believing in Phenomenological Reality.
xxiii. Raising the bar

Occurs when someone refutes an argument by demanding greater evidence. It’s specially fallacious when greater evidence is unnecessary or even inexistent.
xxiv. Nirvana fallacy
Occurs when someone refutes an argument by not being perfect, that is, doesn’t answer all the refuter’s doubts.

Example: “Tobi can’t be a clone of Madara because it doesn’t explain how Tobi isn’t Obito or Shisui.”
xxv. Reification
Occurs when someone treats an abstraction as a concrete entity when such treatment has no antecedent (abstractions like the Seven Sins have been personified throughout the centuries, so such treatment is no longer an reification IF it follows said personification’s basic characteristics)

Example: Treating Shinbutsu Shuugou/Bunri like jutsu. Shinbutsu Shuugou/Bunri, even if they were applied to concrete entities, they are abstractions themselves and there’s no antecedent of their personification.
xxvi. Retrospective determinism
Occurs when someone says that the occurrence of an event was inevitable beforehand since the event occurred, disregarding all the instances that could’ve modified the nature of the event.

Example: “Naruto is a Jinchuuriki because it was inevitable considering what happened in the Kyuubi incident.”
xxvii. Special pleading

Occurs when someone wants to say something is an exemption to a generally accepted rule without justifying (properly) the exemption.

Example: “Minato was a Senju but his clan name was hidden to protect him from harm, like they did to Naruto [but never justifying why other Senju, like Tsunade or Nawaki, didn’t receive such exemption].
xxviii. Strawman Argument
Occurs when someone twists the opponent’s argument or forms a counterpoint that doesn’t address the refutation at all. Here’s an example:

· “Tobi is Obito.”
· “The manga does not state that, so why do you say that?”
· “Well, it can’t be Madara or Shisui.”
xxix. Wrong Direction
Occurs when someone reverses the cause and effect of an event.

Example: “Naruto used Rasengan against Deva Realm because he won the fight.”

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Old 10-27-2011, 05:25 AM   #4
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

a. Faulty generalizations
i. Fallacy by accident
Occurs when someone generalizes a concept while ignoring possible exemptions.

Example: “All redheads are Uzumaki”
ii. No true Scotsman Fallacy
Occurs when someone generalizes a concept and rules out possible exemptions has not being “true to the concept”

Example: “No true Uchiha would befriend an Uzumaki.”
iii. Cherry picking
Occurs when someone chooses information that corroborates his/her argument while ignoring any information that contradicts it.

Example: “Tobi is Tobirama because the knowledge of both would match [ignoring that Tobirama’s soul has been sealed away]”
iv. False analogy
Occurs when someone does an analogy that is poorly executed.

Example: Making an analogy between Peter Pan being able to fly and breaks in the Suspension of Disbelief
v. Hasty generalization
Occurs when someone makes a hasty conclusion on a small sample or on a particular statement that was mistaken as universal.

Example: “All Uzumaki are redheads”
vi. Overwhelming exception
Occurs when someone describes makes a generalization that, even if it’s accurate, has eliminated so many variables that it becomes much less impressive than the starting premise.

Example: Starting with the premise that all Uzumaki are redheads when the generalization only affects Nagato and Kushina.
vii. Thought-terminating cliché
Occurs when someone ends (or tries to end) an argument with a cliché, not a proposition that actually wraps up the argument.

Example: “Well, Tobi can be Obito because of the hair and the Sharingan, or it could be Madara’s clone because of mannerisms and knowledge, but let’s wait and see.”

b. Red Herrings

They are all irrelevant conclusions, but with special designations depending on the nature.
i. Ad hominem

In other words, “argument against the person”. We all know this is the bread and butter of the whole Internet (along with porn, since the Internet was made for it), so don’t act surprised if you see it fly everywhere. It occurs when the arguer is attacked instead of the argument.

Example: “You’re all a bunch of haters.”
ii. Well poisoning

It’s a special case of Ad hominem where adverse information (be it true or fabricated) is used to discredit the opponent.

Example: “You obviously have no life if you bother to refute everything I say”.
iii. Ad baculum
In other words, “appeal to threat”. It occurs when someone stops an argument to make a threat to the well being of the opponent.

Example: “If I’m right you can all eat a dick.”
iv. Ad populum
In other words, “appeal to the people”. It occurs when someone resorts to the sentiment of (some of) the audience/population.

Example: “I think Tobi is Obito because many other people think so too.”
v. Fallacy by association
Occurs when someone argues that two things that have a certain property are the same.

Example: “Yagura’s flower looks like the same Gedou Mazou was sat on.”
vi. Appeal to authority.
Occurs when someone says that a proposition is true because a person with much higher authority said so or said person has a direct control on the veracity of the proposition

Example: “Tobi is Obito because this is Kishimoto’s story after all and he can do whatever he pleases”
vii. Appeal to accomplishment

Occurs when someone says that a proposition is true or false based on the accomplishments of the arguer or the target of the proposition.

Example: “Naruto is a great manga because people are still reading it every week.”

viii. Appeal to consequences
Occurs when someone appeals to the consequences of a certain action in an attempt to derail the argument.

Example: “Naruto is a Senju, because if he isn’t then any upcoming fight between Sasuke and Naruto won’t be as symbolic.”
ix. Appeal to emotion
Occurs when the argument is used to manipulate an emotion (be it fear, flattery, pity, ridicule, spite, wishful thinking, etc.) rather than to make a valid point.
x. Appeal to motive
Occurs when the argument is refuted by questioning the motives of the arguer.

Example: “You’re just refuting my theories because you don’t like me.”
xi. Appeal to novelty
Occurs when someone claims his/her theory is valid just because it’s new.

Example: “These are my new theories, so don’t bitch about them!”
xii. Appeal to tradition
Occurs when someone supports his/her argument with something that was held to be true for a long time, but might not be true anymore.

Example: Saying that gravity only pulls (Newtonian physics, valid from 1687 to 1916) when research has shown that in can push with enough bending of the time/space continuum (Einsteinian Physics, valid since 1916, although modified in some clauses).
xiii. Genetic fallacy
Occurs when someone produces a conclusion based on the origin of the subject rather than its current state.

Example: “Naruto is Senju because he descends from the Second Son.”
xiv. Naturalistic fallacy

Occurs when someone makes a proposition about what things should be rather than what they are/will be.

Example: Arguing for the continuous symbolism of Senju vs Uchiha and Naruto vs Sasuke to prove Naruto is Senu when it pretty much flew out of the window the moment Naruto became an Uzumaki.
xv. Ad Hitler/Godwin’s Law
In other words, “the longer an argument is held, the chances of Hitler and/or the Nazi being mentioned is higher”. Be it an ad hominem, an appeal to emotion, an appeal to motives or anything else, leave poor Hitler alone, he already suffered enough after his death.
xvi. Texas sharpshooter fallacy
A form of KY- err… Kettle Logic, where inconsistent arguments are made to justify a cause to a cluster of information/propositions.

xvii. Appeal to Hypocrisy
Occurs when someone refutes an argument because the arguer didn’t act consistently throughout the discussion. Not to be confused with pointing out the hypocrisy of the arguer when it comes to the argument itself, because the first assumes that the refuter does not care for the argument because the arguer is a hypocrite, while the latter assumes the refuter noticed a contradiction between premises of the argument and deems the arguer an hypocrite.
xviii. Two wrongs make a right.
Occurs when someone thinks that a second wrong variable will fix the first wrong variable.



And… I think that’s it. There are many more fallacies and logic exercises, so if you have any question, just reply.


PS: The constant repetition of Tobi=Obito and Naruto=Senju is not a mere coincidence.
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Last edited by Numinous; 10-27-2011 at 06:07 AM.
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:27 AM   #5
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

It should be Buddhahood, not Budhahood.
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:30 AM   #6
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

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It should be Buddhahood, not Budhahood.
Fixed and thanks for spotting.
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:33 AM   #7
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Stick this please...
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1) There may well be some literary or map correlation between the Uzumaki and Ireland.
Check out this awesome manga called Magi.

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Old 10-27-2011, 05:42 AM   #8
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Sorry but this is kid manga where there are bound to be kids below 18 on this forum. Unless the kid's a nerd, geek (loser) then this nicely done guide will be pretty much useless for them... and what their hearts and guts says will always rules supreme...(e.g oohh i have theory that says xxx so cute so xxx must be xxxxxx...etc)
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:44 AM   #9
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

damnyou aint got a cliff notes or something.. the wall o text is a bit much to chew and yea mods sticky this so I can come back n digest a bit more
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:47 AM   #10
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gamabunta View Post
Sorry but this is kid manga where there are bound to be kids below 18 on this forum. Unless the kid's a nerd, geek (loser) then this nicely done guide will be pretty much useless for them... and what their hearts and guts says will always rules supreme...(e.g oohh i have theory that says xxx so cute so xxx must be xxxxxx...etc)
Or they can actually read it & possibly learn something?
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Quote:
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1) There may well be some literary or map correlation between the Uzumaki and Ireland.
Check out this awesome manga called Magi.

Wanna join me come and play, but I mite shoot you in your face. Bombs and bullets will do the trick. What we need here is a little bit of panic! ~ Get Jinxed
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:53 AM   #11
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

I wouldn't mind for this to be stickied
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Old 10-27-2011, 05:56 AM   #12
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

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Or they can actually read it & possibly learn something?
I hope you're right on this... so that we can see less of emo kids...
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Old 10-27-2011, 06:08 AM   #13
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Finally pulled it off. Jesus, the change of format from Word to the forums was busy work, but I hope it pays off.
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Old 10-27-2011, 07:06 AM   #14
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Yoiu did good Numinous but you know change is slow so be patient ..even I will try to catch myself on a few of these as I go along

you just gotta give me a break on the Naruto is senju thing cuz without it I'm powerless..lol
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Old 10-27-2011, 04:55 PM   #15
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Re: Technical Guide to Form Arguments Logically

Good examples! Plus, it's a bonus when translated into Naruto language I thought at first this was copied from somewhere, but when you put that into your own words I have no doubt you at least understand it yourself.. Nice job!

Although I suspect those most of the people you wrote this for won't read it/understand it. They need not be named or praised.
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